Walter Süskind est un sentier en boucle de 6.9 kilomètres modérément fréquenté situé près de Amsterdam, North Holland en Pays-Bas. Le sentier longe une rivière et sa difficulté est évaluée comme facile. Le sentier est principalement utilisé pour la marche.

Distance: 6.9 km Dénivelé: 95 m Type d'itinéraire: Boucle

balade

voie aménagée

rivière

vue panoramique

fleurs sauvages

parcours urbain

site historique

Barathon

Amsterdam has a Jewish history like no other city in the Netherlands. Jews have lived in Amsterdam for many centuries. You probably know the pet name 'Mokum' for Amsterdam. This is Yiddish for "big city". The first Spanish and Portuguese (Sephardic) Jews came to Amsterdam at the end of the sixteenth century. S'farad is the Hebrew word for Spain. In their own country, these Jews were persecuted by the Roman Catholic Inquisition. First they settled in Antwerp, but after the fall of this city in 1558 they came to Amsterdam. At the time, it was admittedly officially forbidden for Jews to publicly profess their religion. Yet in 1614 a piece of land, just outside Amsterdam, was purchased to serve as a Jewish cemetery and in 1639 the first public synagogue could be inaugurated. You see, tolerating is an age-old practice in Amsterdam. Around 1620, many High German (Ashkenazi) Jews then came to Amsterdam. These Jews came to Amsterdam from Eastern Europe, from Germany, Poland and Russia, because in their countries of origin they had to fear pogroms. Jews were persecuted and killed there. In Amsterdam the Jews did not have to fear for their lives. There was a big social difference between the Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews, both in terms of language and wealth. The rich Portuguese - Israelite congregation and the poorer High German - Israelite congregation lived separately next to each other. Numerically, the Ashkenazi Jews prevailed. Jews were forbidden to work in guilds, so they had to look for new professions, such as diamond worker and silk weaver. As a result, the Jewish community remained very closed. Because of the many prohibitions, especially the High German Jews lived in great poverty. At the beginning of the nineteenth century the Amsterdam Jews were still employed in the same professions. She formed her own world in Amsterdam, with her own language and her own religion. During the Second World War, the Germans carried out the persecution and murder of the Jews with a high degree of criminal perfection. In 1941 almost 80,000 Jews lived in Amsterdam, in 1945 only 11,000 were left. From September 15, 1941, Jews were no longer allowed to go to restaurants, parks, cafés and theaters. Jews were also no longer allowed to perform in public places. A month later the Nazis changed the name of the Hollandsche Schouwburg to Joodsche Schouwburg. Jewish artists, who were no longer allowed to perform in front of a non-Jewish audience, now gave performances and concerts for an exclusively Jewish audience in the Joodsche Schouwburg, among others. The dismissed Jewish musicians of the most important Dutch orchestras organized themselves into Jewish orchestras. The Jewish Symphony Orchestra, for example, consisted of 75 top musicians. The Jewish orchestras played a lot of music from Jewish composers. The Joodsche Schouwburg also played the Jewish Chamber Orchestra, the Jewish Entertainment Orchestra, and theater and small art groups. Walter Süskind after whom this walk is named was born in Germany from Dutch parents. Initially Süskind worked in Cologne as a food representative for a margarine factory. From March 25, 1938 he lived in the Burg. Mathonstraat 7 in Bergen op Zoom. From 19 March 1942 he lived with his wife Johanna Süskind-Natt and his daughter Yvonne, born on 28 March 1939, at the Nieuwe Prinsengracht 51 house in Amsterdam with the intention of emigrating to the United States. During the war he became involved in hiding children via the daycare center on Plantage Middenlaan in Amsterdam. Süskind, after he had to give up his job as a metal turner in a machine factory, worked for the Jewish Council as head of luggage & order service. He was manager of the Hollandsche Schouwburg. In that position he was able to manipulate the data of children in particular. His good relationship with the German authorities also helped him in his activities to help children escape. Süskind had attended school with SS officer Ferdinand aus der Fünten who is active in Amsterdam and was able to use it, so that Aus der Fünten did not realize that there was deception involved. Opposite the Hollandsche Schouwburg on Plantage Middenlaan 38 was a daycare center. The Jewish director of this, Henriette Rodriques Pimentel, set up a system with Süskind and the Amsterdam economist Felix Halverstad (who also works at the theater) to allow Jewish children to go into hiding via the daycare center. They and babies brought them back through the garden to the Reformed Breeding School, two houses away. They received the help of the director of the nursery school, Johan van Hulst. From there they went outside in a backpack, laundry basket or shopping bag. Süskind and Halverstad ensured that children were not registered or removed their names from the administration of the theater. The children then went by tram and train to Limburg and Friesland.

randonnée
6 months ago